All the countries of the world developed in equally. Some countries are highly developed economically and some other countries are still developing and some more are under developed. Several factors are responsible for such variations among the nations besides political factors as mentioned below:
1.The availability of sufficient natural resources,
2.The quality of human resources and also its quantity,
3.Abundance of financial resources, and
4.Technological skills, efficient management skills among the people.
The U.S.A, U.K., Western european nations, Japan, Australia, etc are the best examples for economically developed nations. India, China, Srilanka are some of the examples for developing nations. African nations, Bangladesh, etc are some examples for under developed nations.
Regional imbalances in India:
India acquired under development from the Britishers who ruled the country for several years. The Britishers did not encourage industrial development in India intentionally during their regime. The Britishers utilised India as the raw material supplier for their industries. Thus India used to supply raw materials for British and used to import the finished products.
There have been demands for separate states in India since independence. For instance demands for a separate Telangana state in Andhra Pradesh, a separate Vidharbha state in Maharashtra. In the recent past a separate Chatishgarh state was created from Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand from Bihar and Uttaranchal from Uttar Pradesh. These demands for separate states are mainly due to lack of economic development in such regions.
The economic development of a particular region is measured based on per capita income, gross state domestic product, poverty, unemployment, etc.
In India, Bihar, Orissa, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh, north eastern states are comparatively backward economically when compared to the remaining states. Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamilnadu, and Punjab are comparatively highly developed. In Andhra Pradesh state, there are three regions namely the coastal region, the rayalaseema region and the telengana region. Among these three regions, the telangana is most backward due to lack of resources, negligence by successive governments, poor quality of infrastructural facilities, etc.
One of the main consequences of regional imbalances is the migration of people to the developed areas. For instance many skilled people from India migrate to the developed nations. Similarly within India, people from rural areas or under developed regions have been migrating to highly developed cities or regions. Hence the Mumbai city has been facing the menace of population pressure on its resources. The city’s civic authorities have been facing a challenging task of providing the basic civic amenities to it’s citizens. Violence, law and order problems are the other consequences of such migrations to the developed regions from the under developed or developing regions. Almost all the major cities in India do face the very high intensity of population. Some of such cities are New Delhi, Kolkatta, Chennai, Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune, Ahmedabad, etc.
Population is the mother problem. Reducing the population growth rates, imparting high quality and compulsory education at all levels, reducing the dependency of people on primary activities, developing infrastructural facilities in the backward regions on urgent basis for encouraging trade, strict measures to contain corruption among some politicians and bureaucrats. There were some press reports that the money allocated for the developmental purposes was swallowed by greedy politicians and some corrupt officials. Such an attitude among them would not yield the desired results. To exploit natural resources in the backward regions, proper technology should be used.
To check the migration levels, the government has been implementing national rural employment guarantee scheme which is responsible for reducing the migration of rural people to urban areas for work during the agricultural lean season.